Birds

Chaim Chernoff, Zeke Gillman, Gavi Kutliroff, Daniel Trubnick.


The psukim in the torah discussing kosher birds:


Dvarim 14:11-20


יא כָּל-צִפּוֹר טְהֹרָה תֹּאכֵלוּ
יב וְזֶה אֲשֶׁר לֹא-תֹאכְלוּ מֵהֶם הַנֶּשֶׁר וְהַפֶּרֶס וְהָעָזְנִיָּה:
יג וְהָרָאָה וְאֶת-הָאַיָּה וְהַדַּיָּה לְמִינָהּ:
יד וְאֵת כָּל-עֹרֵב לְמִינוֹ:
טו וְאֵת בַּת הַיַּעֲנָה וְאֶת-הַתַּחְמָס וְאֶת-הַשָּׁחַף וְאֶת-הַנֵּץ לְמִינֵהוּ:
טז אֶת-הַכּוֹס וְאֶת-הַיַּנְשׁוּף וְהַתִּנְשָׁמֶת:
יז וְהַקָּאָת וְאֶת-הָרָחָמָה וְאֶת-הַשָּׁלָךְ:
יח וְהַחֲסִידָה וְהָאֲנָפָה לְמִינָהּ וְהַדּוּכִיפַת וְהָעֲטַלֵּף:
יט וְכֹל שֶׁרֶץ הָעוֹף טָמֵא הוּא לָכֶם לֹא יֵאָכֵלוּ:
כ כָּל-עוֹף טָהוֹר תֹּאכֵלוּ
There are also pesukim discussing kosher birds in shmini:
vayikra 11: 13-19

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יג וְאֶת-אֵלֶּה תְּשַׁקְּצוּ מִן-הָעוֹף לֹא יֵאָכְלוּ שֶׁקֶץ הֵם אֶת-הַנֶּשֶׁר וְאֶת-הַפֶּרֶס וְאֵת הָעָזְנִיָּה:
יד וְאֶת-הַדָּאָה וְאֶת-הָאַיָּה לְמִינָהּ:
טו אֵת כָּל-עֹרֵב לְמִינוֹ:
טז וְאֵת בַּת הַיַּעֲנָה וְאֶת-הַתַּחְמָס וְאֶת-הַשָּׁחַף וְאֶת-הַנֵּץ לְמִינֵהוּ:
יז וְאֶת-הַכּוֹס וְאֶת-הַשָּׁלָךְ וְאֶת-הַיַּנְשׁוּף:
יח וְאֶת-הַתִּנְשֶׁמֶת וְאֶת-הַקָּאָת וְאֶת-הָרָחָם:
יט וְאֵת הַחֲסִידָה הָאֲנָפָה לְמִינָהּ וְאֶת-הַדּוּכִיפַת וְאֶת-הָעֲטַלֵּף




The signs of a kosher bird:
All birds listed in the psukim are not kosher. Those that aren't listed are kosher.
Nonkosher birds:
stork.jpg
חסידה stork
raven.jpg
raven עֹרֵבIt is not kosher because it is predatory.
eagle.jpg
נֶּשֶׁר EagleIt is not kosher because it is predatory.​
pelican.jpg
pelicanקָּאָת

seagull.jpg
שָּׁחַף Seagull
It isn't kosher, because it is predatory.
ibis.jpg
Ibis תַּחְמָס
bat.jpg
עֲטַלֵּף bat
ostrich.jpg
Ostrich יַּעֲנָה

osprey.jpg
עָזְנִיָּה Osprey
owl.jpg
Owl יַּנְשׁוּף
It is not kosher, because it is predatory.
ossifrage.jpg
Osiffrage פֶּרֶס
hoopoe.gif
דּוּכִיפַת hoopoe

white_vulture.jpg
White Vulture רָאָה
It isn't kosher, because it is predatory.
Hawk נֵּץhawk.jpgIt is not kosher, because it isn predatory.
black_vulture.jpg
Black Vulture אַיָּה
It isn't kosher, because it is predatory.

cormorant.jpg
שָּׁלָךְ cormorant


magpie.jpg
Magpie רָחָמָה
kestrel.jpg
דָּאָה kestrel
falcon.jpg
Falcon כּוֹס



This list is all the torah gives on the signs of a kosher bird, however the Rabbis give signs to kosher birds in Mishnah Chullin 3:6
This tells us of the signs of kosher and non-kosher birds
  • All predatory birds are NOT kosher.
  • a bird with an extra toe, crop and has a peelable gizzard IS kosher.
  • A bird that toe divides is NOT kosher.

external image crop-gull.jpg
Bird with a crop.


external image 091.png
bird with an extra toe



Although the gemara did give guidelines to a kosher bird, our sages became very careful because the physical signs for a kosher bird is not cited in the torah. Rashi therefore made a ruling that unless one has a mesorah to eat a certain bird, you may not eat it, even if it follows all guidelines of the gemara. The ramo argues with rashi and says that this is not true and the "new world" birds, such as the turkey are allowed if they follow all guidelines.
More about the Mesorah:
Kosher Birds